Friday, 20 April 2012

New Stem Cell Found in the Brain

Finding could be key to developing methods to heal and repair brain injury and disease 
Friday, 20 April 2012

Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a new stem cell in the adult brain. These cells can proliferate and form several different cell types - most importantly, they can form new brain cells. Scientists hope to take advantage of the finding to develop methods to heal and repair disease and injury in the brain.

Analyzing brain tissue from biopsies, the researchers for the first time found stem cells located around small blood vessels in the brain. The cell's specific function is still unclear, but its plastic properties suggest great potential.

"A similar cell type has been identified in several other organs where it can promote regeneration of muscle, bone, cartilage and adipose tissue," said Patrik Brundin, M.D., Ph.D., Jay Van Andel Endowed Chair in Parkinson's Research at Van Andel Research Institute (VARI), Head of the Neuronal Survival Unit at Lund University and senior author of the study.

In other organs, researchers have shown clear evidence that these types of cells contribute to repair and wound healing. Scientists suggest that the curative properties may also apply to the brain. The next step is to try to control and enhance stem cell self-healing properties with the aim of carrying out targeted therapies to a specific area of the brain.

"Our findings show that the cell capacity is much larger than we originally thought, and that these cells are very versatile," said Gesine Paul-Visse, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Neuroscience at Lund University and the study's primary author.

"Most interesting is their ability to form neuronal cells, but they can also be developed for other cell types. The results contribute to better understanding of how brain cell plasticity works and opens up new opportunities to exploit these very features."

The study, published in the journal PLoS ONE, is of interest to a broad spectrum of brain research. Future possible therapeutic targets range from neurodegenerative diseases to stroke.

"We hope that our findings may lead to a new and better understanding of the brain's own repair mechanisms," said Dr. Paul-Visse.

"Ultimately the goal is to strengthen these mechanisms and develop new treatments that can repair the diseased brain."

About the Neuronal Survival Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University
The research at Neuronal Survival Unit, Lund University, Sweden is focused on pathogenetic mechanisms and pharmacological treatment in cell and animal models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. We also study cell replacement therapy with stem cells in attempts to repair brains in animal models of Parkinson's diseases. The group's mission is to understand neurodegenerative diseases and develop new therapies that are of benefit to patients and their caregivers.

About Van Andel Research Institute
Established by Jay and Betty Van Andel in 1996, Van Andel Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to preserving, enhancing and expanding the frontiers of medical science, and to achieving excellence in education by probing fundamental issues of education and the learning process. This is accomplished through the work of over 200 researchers in more than 20 on-site laboratories and in collaborative partnerships that span the globe.

Contact: Tim Hawkins

Reference:
The Adult Human Brain Harbors Multipotent Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Gesine Paul, Ilknur Özen, Nicolaj S. Christophersen, Thomas Reinbothe, Johan Bengzon, Edward Visse, Katarina Jansson, Karin Dannaeus, Catarina Henriques-Oliveira, Laurent Roybon, Sergey V. Anisimov, Erik Renström, Mikael Svensson, Anders Haegerstrand, Patrik Brundin
PLoS ONE 7(4): e35577. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035577
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ZenMaster

For more on stem cells and cloning, go to CellNEWS at
http://cellnews-blog.blogspot.com/

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